Everybody's an EMTThe most common certification in emergency medical services is the emergency medical technician (EMT). There are two levels of certification that are common to almost every state, EMT-Basic and EMT-Paramedic. States will sometimes use different names for the basic level EMT - California uses EMT-1 for its basic level. Some states recognize an intermediate level of certification (often called EMT-Intermediate) that falls between EMT-Basic and paramedic. EMT-Intermediate is gradually falling out of favor in most areas. Within the industry, it is very common to refer to a basic EMT as simply EMT, and to refer to EMT-Paramedics as paramedics.
So, it's OK to call a paramedic "EMT" but not OK to call an EMT "paramedic."
So, What's the Difference?The biggest differences between paramedics and EMTs are the training and the scope of practice (what they are allowed to do). Basic EMTs usually receive 120 - 150 hours of training, while paramedics get anywhere from 1,200 hours to 1,800 hours of training. Paramedic programs often award two-year degrees.
The scope of practice differences between EMTs and paramedics can be summed up by the ability to break the skin. Most states do not allow basic emergency medical technicians to give shots or start intravenous lifelines. Paramedics, on the other hand, can give shots as well as use more advanced airway management devices to support breathing. Basic EMTs are usually restricted to using oxygen, glucose, asthma inhalers, and epinephrine auto-injectors (a common exception to the no-needles rule). Paramedics are trained in the use of 30-40 medications, depending on the state.
Canada Keeps it SimpleCanada has tried to simplify public understanding of emergency medical certification levels - and cut down on syllables - by referring to all levels of training as paramedics. Within the common term of paramedic, Canada uses the terms EMA-1, EMA-2, etc. EMA stands for emergency medical attendant. Generally, the training for emergency medical attendants in Canada is longer than that of similarly certified EMTs in the US.
Responding to EmergenciesBoth basic EMTs and paramedics respond to emergency medical incidents. Ambulance crewmembers are required to at least have EMT certifications to attend patients in the back of an ambulance. Basic level training provides the most important elements of emergency medical training, while the more advanced paramedic level training addresses supportive care and maintaining patients after initial resuscitation.
Both levels of training will also be called-upon to provide care to patients during interfacility transfers. When a patient needs to be moved from one medical facility to another, ambulances will be used to do the moving. Whether responding to emergencies or providing care during interfacility transfers, ambulances may be staffed with two paramedics, two EMTs, or one of each. In some areas, the level of staffing determines which type of ambulance is sent to a call for service.
Emergency medical service is a complicated industry. There are different rules in each state and sometimes in each city or county. For more information, contact your state's EMS office.