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What frostbite symptoms and signs should I be on the lookout for?

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Updated January 23, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

Frostbite symptoms

Frostbitten toes of a Chinese herdsman after a severe blizzard in northwest China in 2006. Temperatures during the storm were as low as 45 degrees below zero.

Photo by China Photos/Getty Images

Question: What frostbite symptoms and signs should I be on the lookout for?

You might know that frostbite happens in fingers and toes. You might know it comes from being in really cold weather. You may even know it can come from improperly icing an injury. But, do you know how to recognize frostbite?

Answer: Early stages of frostbite look just like a burn. There's swelling, blistering and redness. As frostbite progresses, the skin turns white or yellow. Eventually, it turns black.

Frostbite is literally frozen tissues and fluids in the skin. As the tissues get colder, the damage leads to inflammation and swelling, just as is the case with a burn. Frostbite victims also complain of discomfort from the frostbite:

  • Pain
  • Numbness
  • Tingling
  • Loss of movement
  • Burning sensations

Common sense ways to tell if an injury is frostbite or something else:

  • Cold, red, swollen toes after walking in snow for several hours: probable frostbite
  • Cold, blistered fingers after a day on the ski slopes: probable frostbite
  • What looks like a burn forming after icing a twisted ankle: possibly frostbite
  • Red, swollen nose after fishing for crab during December in the Berring Sea: frostbite
  • Can't feel your feet after climbing Mt. Everest: definitely frostbite

Early frostbite -- sometimes called frostnip -- is very treatable and often doesn't result in any permanent damage. Severe frostbite can lead to loss of skin and muscle.

Treating frostbite is a delicate warming procedure that really shouldn't be attempted without a medical professional, unless there's no other option. As soon as frostbite is recognized, the most important thing to do is keep the area from being exposed to any more freezing temperatures. Rewarming it can be done later, but the longer the area is exposed to freezing temperatures the deeper the frostbite goes.

To understand better how frostbite affects the tissues, watch this animated video: Stages of Frostbite

 

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