Some people are prepared for any eventuality. Others, like me, are more fly-by-the-seat-of-your-pants kind of folks. Reading the average first aid book will leave you thinking the only way to provide first aid is with fancy tools. In reality, there is no better first aid tool than your own noggin. Most basic first aid either doesn't require tools or can be done with items found around the house. These first aid tips don't require a first aid kit.
The most important first aid tools (besides the noggin) are clean hands. Even if you wear gloves -- which probably aren't available if you don't have a first aid kit -- you still need clean paws for taking care of other people. Anything that damages or removes skin (cuts, scratches, burns, etc.) leaves the victim susceptible to infection. If you don't have a way to wash your hands, use alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
Studies have shown that flushing a cut or scrape with plain water is as good as any of the fancy disinfectants. On top of that, soap does a really good job of killing germs even if it isn't marketed as "antibacterial." Once a cut's been flushed clean, it doesn't have to be covered to heal. Putting an adhesive bandage on a cut keeps dirt out, but air doesn't hurt it.
You don't need a special bandage material for stopping bleeding. A clean towel works perfectly, as will a cotton t-shirt. In fact, if the bleeding is severe, you shouldn't wait to track down your first aid kit anyway -- you should quickly put pressure on the wound. Once the bleeding has stopped and you've cleaned it (see above), you can leave it open. If you really want to dress a wound and don't have a bandage, a sanitary napkin will work very well. The original Kotex was developed as a military field dressing.
Cardboard is very stiff if you bend it. We use folded cardboard for splinting in the field. Our cardboard splints are made exclusively for that purpose, but you can make a cardboard splint out of any box. Those boxes for archiving files work especially well, and you can find them in almost any office.
Injured feet and ankles can be splinted pretty successfully by wrapping a pillow around the injured foot and securing it with strong tape -- duct tape works really well.
6. Call 911
There are two types of first aid -- minor injuries you can handle by yourself and life-threatening emergencies that need professional help. Probably the best non-medical first aid tool you have is a telephone. If you call, be calm and expect to answer lots of questions, sometimes more than once. If you're calling 911 from a mobile phone, make sure you know what to expect before you call.
7. Do CPR
CPR is the most basic emergency first aid there is. Current American Heart Association guidelines call for rescue breathing as part of CPR. There's lots of evidence, however, that for the most common type of cardiac arrest patients -- adults who suddenly collapse -- pushing on the chest is good enough, no mouth-to-mouth necessary. To do that type of CPR, no CPR mask is necessary. One thing to keep in mind: child and infant CPR still needs mouth-to-mouth.